|Making Compost Fertilizer|
|Written by Administrator|
|Tuesday, 07 September 2010 10:09|
Increased production and productivity of farmers in agricultural commodities has produced highly dependent on chemical fertilizers. On the other hand, continuous land use result in a decline in soil organic matter and even the majority of agricultural land containing organic materials is low (<2%), whereas the ideal content is> 3%. Soil with low organic matter content will decrease its ability to bind chemical fertilizers, so the effectiveness and efficiency is declining because of leaching and fixation. Improvement of soil fertility and increasing soil organic matter can be done through the addition of organic matter or compost. However, the nutrient content of organic fertilizers is low and its slow release, so necessary in large numbers.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers which are largely or entirely composed of organic materials derived from plants and / or animals that have been through the engineering process, can be solid or liquid that is used to supply organic matter and improve physical properties, chemical and biological soil. In general, the benefits of organic fertilizers are: to improve soil structure and fertility, increases the shelf life and water absorption, improve soil chemical and biological conditions, enriching the macro and micro nutrients and does not pollute the environment and safe for humans.
Agricultural waste that can be used as organic fertilizer sources is rice straw, rice husk / rice husk, peanut and soybean brangkasan, leaves and stems of corn, sawdust, municipal waste and animal manure (cow, buffalo, sheep, goats, chickens). Nutrient content of livestock manure and agricultural waste is very diverse, and so did the ratio between carbon and nitrogen (C / N ratio). Optimal materials for the manufacture of organic compost or organic fertilizer, aerobically has C / N ratio of 25-30. Nutrient content of cattle dung and agricultural wastes :
II. BIOACTIVATOR (DECOMPOSER)
Biodegradation of organic material naturally takes 3-4 months, so efforts to conserve agricultural land they have problems, let alone faced with the pressing plant to produce high production. Residues of organic material is difficult to convert into a form that is more efficient because lignin is a limiting dergradasi speed and efficiency of decomposition. Thus it is necessary to accelerate the reform of lignin and cellulose with various decomposers or bioactivator.
There is now available so that various types of decomposers of organic fertilizer production business opportunity wide open. The use of microbial decomposers can be seen from the effectiveness and efficiency, quality compost, cost and ease of application. Characteristics of microbial decomposers and dose used in the manufacture of organic fertilizer or compost is as follows:
- Biodec: Represents konsersia perombak microbial cellulose and lignin with complementary metabolic functions, reorganize and transform organic residues into soil organic matter and fertilize the soil. Use Biodec for each ton/m3 material is 2.5 kg.
- Compromise: Formula superior microbial, plant growth boosters, solvents bound to soil nutrients and plant disease control. Compromise is the microbial active ingredient Trichoderma harzianum, T. pseudokoningii and Aspergillus sp. The use of compromise for each 1 kg of material is ton/m3.
- M-Dec: Microbes accelerate composting, residues and suppress the development of disease, the larvae of insecticides and weed seeds. The active ingredient is a microbe M-Dec Trichoderma harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, Aspergillus and Trametes sp. The use of M-Dec for every 1 kg of material is ton/m3.
- Orlitani: Formula bioactivator with the active ingredient Trichoderma harzianum and T. pseudokoningii. Benefits of compost with Orlitani can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers by 50% and increase yields 10-20%. Use Orlitani for each ton/m3 material is 5 kg.
- Orgadec: Decomposers who have the ability to reduce C / N ratio rapidly and antagonistic towards some type of root disease. Trichoderma pseudokoningii containing microbes and Cytophaga sp has high capability in lignin and cellulose destroyers simultaneously. Use Orgadec for each ton/m3 material is 5 kg.
- EM-4: Decomposers containing photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Actinomycetes, yeasts and fungal fermentation. EM-4 is an aromatic liquid with a sweet sour taste with a pH <3.5. The use of EM-4 for each ton/m3 material is one liter.
Based on this research, some decomposers (M-Dec, Orgadec, Probion, MOL-papaya, MOL-bamboo) can lower the C / N ratio of about 25:1 straw after two weeks of incubation, but the new compost maturity and stability achieved after a week -5 with C / N ratio of 11:1 - 16:1.
III. TECHNICAL PREPARATION
1. Compost Straw
Materials and equipment used consisted of rice straw, decomposers, buckets, ropes, bamboo, black plastic and machetes / knives.
Stages of composting of rice straw were as follows:
- Dissolve decomposers appropriate doses in 250 liters of water, then stir until homogeneous.
- Create a stack of rice straw is coated with a size of 1m x 1m x 1m.
- Each layer (20 cm) flushed with 50 liters of solution evenly decomposers, and so on until it reaches a height 1 m. - Padatkan each layer of straw with a way of being trampled.
- When finished cover with black plastic, then bound with rope.
- Piles of straw left 2-4 weeks.
Composting going well in case of high reduction of the stack, feels hot to the touch, no odor, no hay dry and beginning to soften.
2. Bokashi Straw
Materials and equipment used consisted of chopped rice straw as much as 800 kg, 150 kg of husk, bran 50 kg, decomposers, some water, buckets, black plastic, hoes and shovels.
Stages of making straw Bokashi is as follows:
- Dissolve decomposers in 250-300 liters of water.
- Straw, chaff and bran mixed thoroughly, then doused with a solution of decomposers that have been prepared.
- Sprinkling done slowly until dough moisture content reaches 30%.
- The dough is spread out as high as 30-40 cm in a dry place at / above the floor.
- Cover the dough with black palstik or tarpaulin.
- During the fermentation progresses, the temperature is maintained 40-50 degrees C.
- If the temperature exceeds 50 degrees C, open the lid, and then turned or stirred so that incoming air, and then closed again.
- Length of fermentation ranged between 3-4 weeks.
Bokashi has been so marked by the savory smell arose and came up layers of white mushrooms and not hot anymore.
3. Bokashi Kohe
The materials used consisted of 850 kg of cow manure, kitchen ash 100 kg, 50 kg of sawdust, kaptan 20 kg, 2.5 kg Probion, SP-36 fertilizer 2.5 kg and 60% water.
Further equipment includes: shovels, hoes, forks and place of manufacture.
Stages of making bokashi kohe are as follows:
- Prepare the site, equipment and materials used.
- Dissolve decomposers Probion and SP-36 fertilizer in 250 liters of water.
- Mix the manure with other materials and mix evenly, then pour decomposer solution which has been prepared, then cover with a black palstik or plastic sheeting.
- Length of fermentation or composting 3-4 weeks, where every week is a reversal.
- The process of composting materials work well when the temperature is increased.
- After 3-4 weeks diperam, fertilizer has become ripe with blackish brown color, crumb texture and odorless.
- Perform sieving to obtain a uniform size and shape and separates from the material which is not expected.
- Organic fertilizers are ready packed or applied to land as a basic fertilizer.
By : Mayunar
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 14 September 2010 14:56|